The Assignment: (4-5 pages not including the title and reference page)

In a 4- to 5-page paper, synthesize the peer-reviewed research you reviewed. Format your Assignment as an Annotated Bibliography. Be sure to address the following:

  • Identify the 4 peer-reviewed research articles you reviewed, citing each in APA format.
  • Include an introduction explaining the purpose of the paper.
  • Summarize each study, explaining the improvement to outcomes, efficiencies, and lessons learned from the application of the clinical system each peer-reviewed article described. Be specific and provide examples.
  • In your conclusion, synthesize the findings from the 4 peer-reviewed research articles.
  • Use APA format and include a title page.
  • Use the Safe Assign Drafts to check your match percentage before submitting your work.


 Literature Review: The Use of Clinical Systems to Improve Outcomes and Efficiencies


Clinical systems are computer-based systems that store, share, and analyze medical information. Hoffer-Hawlik et al. (2021) wrote that medical information is used to improve patient care and manage medical records. In addition to this, it is used to facilitate communication between healthcare providers and patients. Clinical systems are used to track patient treatments, medications, laboratory tests, and other medical data. The selected clinical system for this report is telemedicine. Omboni et al. (2020) explained that telemedicine is a type of clinical system that uses technology to provide medical care and consultations over long distances. The system allows healthcare providers and patients to communicate via video, telephone, or the Internet. Hoffer-Hawlik et al. (2021) observed that this technology is used to diagnose and treat patients, conduct medical consultations, provide medical advice, and monitor their progress. Telemedicine can be used for follow-up visits, emergency care, and remote surgery. It has the potential to reduce travel costs and improve access to medical services for patients in remote or underserved areas. Telemedicine can also reduce the number of hospital visits and improve the quality of care for patients. This research aims to select peer-reviewed articles on telemedicine and the management of hypertension in primary care. The chosen sources will be evaluated for relevance and quality, and an annotated bibliography will be created to summarize each article’s essential information and findings. The research will provide an overview of the current evidence on the efficacy of telemedicine in managing hypertension and the implications for primary care providers. Further, the results of this research will inform future strategies for the management of hypertension using telemedicine.



Annotated Bibliography

Omboni, S., McManus, R. J., Bosworth, H. B., Chappell, L. C., Green, B. B., Kario, K., Logan, A. G., Magid, D. J., Mckinstry, B., Margolis, K. L., Parati, G., & Wakefield, B. J. (2020). Evidence and recommendations on the use of telemedicine for the management of arterial hypertension. Hypertension, 76(5), 1368–1383.

In this expert position paper, the authors explored telemedicine’s use in managing arterial hypertension. They discussed evidence and recommendations for telemedicine use, including remote monitoring and transmission of vital signs, medication adherence, and education on lifestyle and risk factors. The authors suggested that the best-proposed healthcare model should include video consultation and a multidisciplinary clinical team (physician, nurse, or pharmacist). There are two improved outcomes that the researchers reported. One, telemedicine allowed for enhanced access to care. Telemedicine provides increased access to care for those living in rural or remote areas, allowing patients suffering from conditions such as arterial hypertension to access medical care that they may otherwise not be able to. Two, the researchers reported improved outcomes through enhanced patient engagement. Omboni et al. said telemedicine helped improve patient engagement by allowing for greater convenience and flexibility in access to care. Two improvements in efficiency achieved through telemedicine were reducing the need for in-person visits and improving the effectiveness and accuracy of treatment decisions. The authors found that telemedicine reduced the need for in-person visits by allowing patients to remotely monitor and manage their hypertension. Furthermore, telemedicine technology enabled more accurate and effective treatment decisions by collecting and analyzing patient data. One example of the lessons learned from the application of telemedicine is the importance of having access to accurate data and the ability to assess it quickly. Remotely monitored patients need to quickly and accurately transmit data from their medical devices, such as blood pressure monitors, to their healthcare provider. This allows healthcare providers to quickly analyze the data and change the patient’s treatment plan when needed.

Hoffer-Hawlik, M., Moran, A., Zerihun, L., Usseglio, J., Cohn, J., & Gupta, R. (2021). Telemedicine interventions for hypertension management in low-and middle-income countries: A scoping review. PLOS One16(7), e0254222.

This scoping review studied the effects of telemedicine interventions for blood pressure management in low- and middle-income countries, identifying 530 articles and including 14 studies. Results showed that most studies demonstrated improved outcomes and a significant reduction in blood pressure with telemedicine intervention. There was a second evident improvement in effect from the decrease in costs. The fact that the blood pressure patients communicated and were monitored remotely meant that the need to travel was massively reduced, making valuable savings on expenses. The authors concluded that telemedicine is promising, but more research is needed to establish its impact and role. Most of the studies in this review demonstrated a significant improvement in efficiencies from telemedicine. Remote communication implied that patients could be monitored promptly and effectively. The time saved from traveling to healthcare facilities was used to offer early and much-needed monitoring and treatment. This review found that telemedicine interventions for blood pressure management in low- and middle-income countries led to a significant reduction in blood pressure, with changes in systolic blood pressure ranging from 0.4 to 13.2 mmHg. NURS-6051N Week 8: Assignment LITERATURE REVIEW: THE USE OF CLINICAL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE OUTCOMES AND EFFICIENCIES

The lesson learned from this study is that telemedicine interventions for hypertension management in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) have the potential to improve health outcomes. This resource is essential because it provides a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the use of telemedicine in LMICs, allowing healthcare providers to make more informed decisions about these interventions. Additionally, it highlights the need for further research into the efficacy and impact of telemedicine interventions in LMICs.

Wang, J. G., Li, Y., Chia, Y. C., Cheng, H. M., Minh, H. V., Siddique, S., Sogunuru, G. P., Tay, J. C., Teo, B. W., Tsoi, K., Turana, Y., Wang, T. D., Zhang, Y. Q., & Kario, K. (2021). Telemedicine in the management of hypertension: Evolving technological platforms for blood pressure telemonitoring. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, 23(3), 435–439.

In this research study, the authors explored the potential of telemedicine to improve blood pressure control. They looked at the development of telecommunication technology, from telephone transmission to smart mobile phone technology, and how they could be used to manage hypertension. Specifically, the article examined emerging technologies that provided more possibilities in telemonitoring and co-interventions, such as an interactive platform between patients and health professionals. In addition, the authors suggested that telemedicine changed the situation of inadequate management of hypertension. Improved outcomes were observed in how telemedicine helped to maximize the use of antihypertensive treatment to end atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis in humans. Telemedicine provides more effective treatment for hypertension. Wang et al. emphasized that the development of telecommunication technology, from telephone transmission to smart mobile phone technology, increased efficiency by enabling physicians and nurses to provide remote care to individuals unable to access healthcare services due to geographical constraints. The technology improved efficiency in the access to care and offered frequent guidance and monitoring of patients.

The critical lesson from using the clinical telemedicine system is that it is a powerful tool for improving blood pressure control in patients who would otherwise not receive proper care. Further, telemedicine provides a convenient and reliable platform for health professionals to monitor and manage hypertension and other chronic conditions and provide timely advice and interventions to ensure patients adhere to their prescribed treatments. This resource is beneficial for medical professionals and patients alike as it gives an overview of the current evidence for the effectiveness of telemedicine in managing hypertension. It also includes an overview of the new technologies developed to improve telemonitoring. This article mainly discusses the challenges and opportunities that telemedicine presents and its potential for improving the management of hypertension and other chronic conditions.

Taylor, P., Berg, C., Thompson, J., Dean, K., Yuan, T., Nallamshetty, S., & Tong, I. (2022). Effective access to care in a crisis period: Hypertension control during the COVID-19 pandemic by telemedicine. Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality & Outcomes6(1), 19-26.

The objective of this research was to determine the level of effectiveness of telemedicine on hypertension during the Covid-19 pandemic. In their analysis, Taylor et al. conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with hypertension who received care during the pandemic. The results showed that telemedicine was associated with improved outcomes such as better hypertension control, blood pressure readings, and medication adherence. The reported enhanced efficiencies from telemedicine emanated from increased patient blood pressure monitoring. There was a notable rise in timely interventions and better medication adherence. Physicians provided more comprehensive and personalized care since they had more information about the patient’s condition and could tailor advice and treatment recommendations to the individual.

This article is vital for the current study on clinical systems as it provides evidence of the effectiveness of telemedicine in incidences of hypertension. Taylor et al. emphasized the importance of healthcare providers having systems that allow quick and easy access to healthcare services and provide personalized care tailored to the individual. The research further demonstrated the potential of telemedicine to improve health outcomes, such as better hypertension control, and encourage better medication adherence. This evidence was invaluable for the study as it helped demonstrate the value of clinical systems in providing adequate access to care during times of crisis.


From the review of the four resources above, telemedicine had a tremendous impact on managing hypertension and other health conditions, especially during the height of Covid-19. This clinical system has enabled healthcare providers to remotely monitor and manage patients’ blood pressure, health status, and treatment plans while providing more convenient and accessible care. Furthermore, telemedicine has also enabled patients to manage their hypertension better, leading to improved outcomes. Telemedicine will continue to have a positive impact on the management of hypertension in the future. NURS-6051N Week 8: Assignment LITERATURE REVIEW: THE USE OF CLINICAL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE OUTCOMES AND EFFICIENCIES